domingo, 11 de junho de 2017

Giuseppe Flavio (37-100), who knew very well the priesthood of this time, clear 'that when the Romans attacked the temple the Jews invoked the ominous name of God, but wrote down his refusal to transmit it to the reader. However gave the paramount information to rediscover the ruling that he wanted to keep hidden. You can 'read fact in the work The Jewish War the following statement: "The high priest had his head decorated with a tiara of fine linen embroidered with a purple edge, and surrounded by another crown in gold that brought the holy letters in relief ; these are four voice. " This is an excellent description; for more 'complete one made in Exodus 28: 36-39. However as we know there are no vowels in Hebrew, only the consonants. Unfortunately, instead of explaining this apparent strangeness, some commentators (affected by Yahweh shape) mislead the readers of Giuseppe Flavio stating in a footnote that this reading was IAUE. Now it is evident that the "sacred letters" referred to the Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew language, and not in greek. For more 'in Hebrew these consonants Y, W, H, are precisely used as vowels; are more 'calls matres lectionis "mothers of reading." The writings of Qumrân have shown that the Y vowel in the first century served only to indicate the sounds I and E, W needed only for Ô U and sounds, while an H word needed in order for the sound A. These equivalences can be If you check on thousands of words. For more 'H was used as a voice only in word word, and never inside (but between vowels the' H is pronounced like a light E). Cosi 'to read the name YHWH as four vocal force you to read IHÔA ie IEÔA.

An excellent name
My first work entitled YHWH - An excellent name. Narrative history of the divine name [YHWH to only hunger? A historical record of the divine Name], was cataloged by Henri Cazelles, chairman of the Institut Catholique de Paris, as a thesis (T594GER) to BOSEB. The French Bible translator André Chouraqui has mentioned in his book entitled Moses (p. 161). I later published my book entitled A History of the divine name. An excellent name. Now I 'concluding the English version, to publish it to more' soon.
My analysis showed that Jehovah (ie YeHoWaH in Hebrew) is the correct pronunciation. I agree that this result may seem strange to the reader, but I'm sure they will understand the enormous consequences of such a statement. To give an idea of the importance of this issue present some arguments.

Jehovah or Yahweh (Jehovah)?
  1- Period of discovery (1200-1500) . Ancient Jewish scholars such as Joachim of Fiore (1195) and Pope Innocent III (1200), tried to vocalize the name of God used the name IEUE. Why this vocalization? The origin is to be found in the book of the famous Maimonides, wrote in 1190, entitled Guide of the Perplexed in which I explain 'that the Tetragrammaton was the true name of God and say' that was the only authentic form of worship that had been lost, not the authentic pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, because this was still possible according to his letters (for a better understanding of this expression see Appendix). That is why Pope Innocent III known 'that the Hebrew letters of the Tetragrammaton Iohdh, He', Wav (ie Y, H, W) were used as vowels, and that the name IESUS had exactly the same vowels I, E and U of the divine name IEUE. He used 'the Hebrew / Greek correspondence between: Y = I, H = E and W = U (In the first century, Giuseppe Flavio explain' that the Tetragrammaton was written with four vowels .) In addition, the French translator Jacques Lefèvre d ' Étaples, got the name IHEUHE, because preferred 'use the Hebrew / Latin correspondences: Y = I, H = HE = U and W in his notes to the Psalms written in 1509. However, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa explain' in one of its sermons written in 1445, that the name of God is spelled in Hebrew Iohdh, He ', Waw, He' ; and that these four letters are used as vowels, matching I, E, O, A in greek, because in this language there is no specific letter to the sound OU (the letter U in greek is pronounced like the French Ü). Cosi 'in greek, transcription IEOUA would be more' accurate and better reflect the OU sound of the Hebrew name Ieoua, that becomes in Latin Iehova or Ihehova, because the letter H is deaf and speech U serves as a consonant (V). The best match would be Y = I, H = A (in terms of speech) and W = O, as explained by the Jewish author Hallevi Judah in his book The Kuzari wrote in 1140. That's why the contemporary scholar Antoine Fabre d'Olivet he said in his book entitled La Langue hébraïque restituée (the Hebrew language returned) published in 1823, that the best pronunciation of the divine name, according to his letters was Ihôah / Iôhah / Jhôah. Also, when I start 'to translate the Bible (Genesis, chapters I to X), he used' systematically named IHÔAH in his translation (ie YHWH = IH-O-AH.) Many scholars preferred the Y = matches I , H = A (end of word) and W = OU, because the OU sound is more 'ancient Ô sound, for example, the YHWDH name is read IH-OU-D-AH, non-IH-Ô-D-AH . They obtained IH-OU-AH or IOUA because the letter H is deaf. Strangely, many scholars believe that this JOVA name had been preserved in the ancient name of JoVE (Joue-pater ie Jupiter).
2- Improvement (1500-1600) . To order the variants of pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, Pietro Galatino dedicate 'a good part of his work entitled De arcanis catholice Veritatis (Del Secret of the Universal Truth), published in 1518, in order to explain the reasons for this ruling. First thing, I quote 'the book of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed to a great extent, especially the chapters 60-64 of the first part, in order to remember that the Tetragrammaton is the proper name of God and that can' be pronounced according to his letters. However, he proved 'that the pronunciation Ioua, used in his time, it was too rough and I'll explain' the reasons. I explain 'such that the name Iuda, written hdwy (YWDH), was an abbreviation of the name written Iehuda hdwhy (YHWDH). All their Hebrew names starting with YHW- [ why ] are almost always vocalized Ieh-. Therefore if the Tetragrammaton was really pronounced Ioua would be written hW: y (YWH) in Hebrew, which was never made. Cosi 'since the Tetragrammaton is written hwhy (YHWH), the letter H in the name must be audible. He concluded that, having to pronounce the name according to his letters, the best transcription should be I-eh-ou-a (Iehoua), rather than form I-ou-a used, for example, by Agostino Giustiniani, in his translation multilingual Psalms published in 1516 (if Galatino had directly transcribed the Masoretic form, he would get Yehouah and not Iehoua). The French translator Pierre Robert Olivétan recognized in his Apologie du translateur (Apology of the translator) written in 1535, that the Name of God was Iehouah Ioua rather than in Hebrew, because the latter form did not express the aspiration of the letter H.
Following the well-known expert in grammar W. Gesenius recognized, according to teoforici names (see Appendix), that God's name could easily be vocalized in Iehouah. However the obvious Iehouah form was attacked very soon because of the Kabbalists and then the theologians who assumed that the divine name was a verbal form . This claim is absurd because if the divine name was a verbal form Moses, who spoke Hebrew, he would have understood the meaning without any problem, which did not happen (Ex 3:13). In fact, Moses knew the name of God, but he received a religious understanding of the meaning "He will [or will prove to be]" ( yihyeh ) not a grammatical explanation. For more 'normal way of asking for a name is the use of the Hebrew pronoun  ( YMI as in Judges 13:17); the use of mah ( hm; ) instead requires an additional response, and question the meaning ( ' what?' ) or the composition of the name. So the answer "I will be '[show you' for being] what 'I will' [show you 'to be]" is more' a religious explanation that a grammatical note!
As Michele Serveto known 'in his treatise against the trinity De Trinitatis erroribus (errors Trinity) written in 1531, the Iehouah name is very close to theophoric name of Jesus being Jeshua in Hebrew. This link seems to 'him more' persuasive grammatical form proposed by some Kabbalists of his time - a future piel (vocalized YeHaWèH meaning "He will be," "He will be" or "He will be"). For example, the Hebrew form yehabe had been used by Abner of Burgos, a Spanish jew converted, in his work entitled Mostrador de Justicia (1330). Servetus defended the name Iehouah against the supposed grammatical form (a future piel !) Yehauue spiegand that "He will generate" in the book entitled The epistle of the secrets of the Christian Kabbalist Paulus de Heredia, published around 1488.
3- Controversy (1600-1900) . The debate on whether to use or Iehoua Ioua was restricted to groups of Hebrew scholars. However, when the victorious form began 'to reach the general public, the exchange thread' gender by becoming much more ' theological and polemical . The first to open hostilities hostilità was the archbishop Gilbert Genebrard, in his book written in 1568 in defense of the Trinity, in which I dedicate 'many pages to prove the errors Chateillon S., P. Galatino, S. Pagnin, etc. First, attack 'Ioua the form used by Chateillon remembering that S. Agostino had explained that according to the writer Varro Jews worshiped Ioue (Jupiter, Jupiter!), And so the use of Ioua was a return to paganism. In the preface to his commentary on the Psalms pointed to 'well that this name was Ioua barbarian, fictitious and an atheist! With regard to the testimony of Clement of Alexandria (Iaou), Gerolamo (Iaho), Teodoreto (Iabe), reason 'that it was fome weathered Ioue, and apparently these testimonies appeared to him as little trust, because very late having Jews stopped pronouncing the name for centuries now. Finally reproach 'P. Galatino (and S. Pagnin), who had used the Iehoua form, not to have considered the theological sense: "He is" in order to find Lavera vocalization . In fact from the time of the Seventy, it was known translation that the divine name meant "He is." I génebrard try 'to confirm this definition according to his knowledge of Hebrew. Cosi 'since God is indicated in Exodus 3:14 with the expression "I am", (in Hebrew Ehie ), you should say, speaking of God, "He," meaning in Hebrew Iihie (a form of qoriginal future). Because of language laws, it was likely that this form Iihie came from a more 'archaic form Iehue suggested in 1550 by Luigi Lippomano, and Génebrard known' that the abate Gioacchino of Fiore had used this more 'exact form (Ieue) in his Revelation book.
The demonstration of Génebrard, albeit unconvincingly, made a big impression on his level of culture. Also during the following century, Bible commentators often quoted this Iehue form (or Iiheue) next to Iehoua. In any case, if you disregard the striking aspects of the demonstration, this remained highly speculative due to the absence of witnesses (rear, in order to mitigate this gap, Protestant theologians rehabilitated the historical evidence of the first century). The main innovation of Génebrard was to introduce the theological significance of the name in the search of his vocalization (which in fact was a kabbalistic concept) , a process that gave rise to (as he increased the knowledge of the Hebrew language and history) to a profusion of new forms of vocalization.
4- Period of confusion (1900-2000) . To summarize the problem, the pronunciation of the divine name, that is, Jehovah, is really easy to find using the teoforici names because without any exception , all teoforici names beginning YHW- are vocalized YeHÔ- (I- in the Septuagint). So theophoric name par excellence, namely YHW-H, must be forcibly read Yeho-AH. Even the meaning of the divine name is easily determined, namely "He will [will prove to be]" according to Exodus 3:14, which gives the correct understanding. Suppose a different understanding, derived from Kabbalah ( "He will be"), from the Hebrew grammar ( "He Causes to Become") or by Greek philosophy ( "He is there") really only introduces confusion.
The more 'easy way to avoid this conclusion is to note that there are no equivalent religious etymologies in the Bible and hypothetical grammatical etymologies.
ETYMOLOGY GRAMMAR
NAME
ETYMOLOGY BIBLICAL
"Rest"
Nua h
Noa h
Na h am
"Comforting" (1Ch 4:19)
"He will praise"
Yudeh (?)
Yehudah
Yodeh
"He will praise"
He will [will prove to be]
Yihweh (?)
YeHoWaH
Yihyeh
"He will [will prove to be]"
-
(?)
Abraham
Abhamon
"Father of a crowd"
For example the famous Yehudah name means "He will praise" according to Genesis 29:35, but not according to the Hebrew grammar ( Yodeh ). Cosi 'despite the biblical explanation, Yehudah is a noun and not a verb form. Since I do not understand these differences, many scholars and translators have tried to harmonize with those biblical grammatical etymologies. For example, one of the translators of the Septuagint I improve ' the biblical etymology "He will comfort" (Gen. 5:29), transforming it into a grammatical etymology best "he will rest". Similarly, the jew writer Philo I improve ' the biblical etymology of "Father of a Crowd" (Gen. 17: 5) with grammatical etymology better "[chose] Noise father" ie Abra'am in Hebrew that It harmonizes better with the name Abraham with Abhamon. In the past many scholars have tried to improve the biblical etymology "He will [will prove to be]" with a better grammatical etymology "He is becoming," because the latter form ( hypothetically vocalized Yahayeh that can ' hypothetically be derived from a Yahaweh old) could explain the frequent start in Yah- testimony Iaô Greek in the first century.

"He Causes to Become" (Yahweh) or "He will prove to be" (Jehovah)?
1) In the note at Exodus 3:14 The Jerusalem Bible acknowledges that " when the causative form" He does being "is an old explanation, but it most likely is a qal form, ie" He is. " "According to the competent authority of the Jewish scholar André Caquot, the name Yahwe or Iaoue is a theological explanation rather than philological of God's name .
2) In Exodus 3:14 the Hebrew Bible uses a form qal "I will be '[show you' to be] that I will be '[show you' to be]" and not a form hiphil "I do become what 'do become."
3) Here is Professor Freedman response to my previous letter in which I asked for an explanation about this amazing explanation. He writes: " I was pleased to hear from him and receive his detailed treatment of this valuable and interesting subject, about which I wrote from time to time. I was never completely satisfied with my analysis and interpretation of the divine name in the Hebrew Bible, nor that of others, including my teacher, WF Albright and his teacher (which Albright has derived its location), Paul Haupt. At the same time, I have not seen anything else that I could convince the higher value of another interpretation, but I will be 'pleased to learn from his study and find that you have finally solved questoantico puzzle. "Despite the reputation of Professor Freedman as a famous publisher, I would say that these arguments have no effect. For example, he said "However, the name could be a unique or singular use of the causative root." You can not 'take seriously this reasoning because missing out on account of the fact that the causative form of the verb "to become, to be" does not exist nor has ever existed in Hebrew. Thus the dogma of the causative form "He Causes to Become" is not in the Bible.
For more 'Professor Freedman chose this analysis not for grammatical reasons, but theological (Please read his comment in' Anchor Bible Dictionary .) So the name Yahweh "He Causes to Become" is a theological choice against Jehovah, that to say ' " He will [will prove to be]. " For example, to demonstrate the shape causative Professor Albright (who was a teacher of Professor Freedman!), Suppose that you could find the real name through the names from the false religions (like the Babylonian and Egyptian), he writes in his book From the stone Age to Christianity (from the stone Age to Christianity). Suppose also that the formula was changed Exodus 3:14 not to contradict his first hypothesis. In saying, Professor Albright modify 'the biblical formula.
The theory of Professor Freedman is supported only by a small group of scholars (the teacher Freedman and a few others) but it is not based on reliable analysis. Even in 1906, the dictionary Brown, Driver and Briggs said: "Many contemporary scholars explain hw, h] y ' as HIPH. of hwh (...) But the majority interpret it as a Qal of hwh . "To date, competent scholars (for example, L. Pirot, A. Clamer Bible Ed. Letouzey et Ané, 1956, p. 83) does not know the causative form It can 'be taken thoughtlessness for two main reasons. Primarily the causative form of "be" verb is not known in Hebrew, also to express a causative sense, it was used the Piel form. Secondly this philosophical notion was not Hebrew (and Greek philosophy) and the more 'natural sense is: "I will be' with you," according to Exodus 3:12.
It seems that the position taken by some translation committees have the support of scholars and is in full agreement with the Jewish concept of the Almighty who is the First Cause of the universe, however, it appears to be a confusion between philosophy and grammar. Moreover, this "Jewish concept" is above all a "greek philosophical concept." The translators of Settantafecero such a mistake, changing the meaning of Exodus 3:14 "I will be '[show you' for being] what I will be '[show you' to be]" to "I am He who is."
EJ Revell Professor Emeritus University of Toronto, in response to my letter, he wrote: " I read with great interest the copy of his work to me posted. Before reading his study I had no particular opinion about the pronunciation of the name of God. As a student in the 50s, I was told that scientists had determined that "Yahweh" was the exact pronunciation. I did not find that the argument was well demonstrated, but this view was said almost as an article of faith by my instructors , and I had no issue of greater importance in opposition, so 'I ignored the problem. I have occasionally thought, but I did not get any more information than those that you mentioned in your study. You have for sure been getting more information about the problem than any other student I know, and you deserve compliments for the production of a work of value. Many thanks for sending it shipped. »

Here is an appendix with some additional explanations in order to avoid confusion between the name and its meaning, and between the two names: Jah and Jehovah.
1) Confusion between the short name YH and the great name YHWH.
The reading Ya is favored by a confusion between the two names of God: the full name YeHoWaH (Ps 83:18) and the abbreviated name YaH (Ps 68: 4). The Jews riservarono different treatment to these two names because they always agreed in pronouncing the abbreviated name, but contrary to that full, which was replaced around the third century BC from its substitute Adonai (Lord). So 'the abbreviated name Yah is found in Greek writings Christians in the expression Hallelujah (Rev. 19: 1-6), which means "Praise Yah." Also in the writings of Qumran ', the Tetragrammaton was sometimes written in paleo-Hebrew in the Hebrew text, which is not true for the name Yah. It should also be noted that the name Yah was specifically used in songs (Ex 15: 2) and in the psalms.
- The abbreviated name YH is vocalized Yah (Hallelu- Yah in Hebrew and Allelou- ia in greek).
- The nickname YHW alone (not in the Bible but found in the writings of Elephantina for example) is vocalized Hebrew Yahu, and lao ( IAW ) in greek (found in a copy of the seventies of the first century BC). This yahu same meaning in Hebrew "Yah He" (Yah Hu '). The yahu name is different from the name Jehu ( Ye Hu in Hebrew and Ie ou in the Septuagint) which means Yehow [ah-h] û 'ie "Yehow [ah] He" and not Yah-hu' means "Yah He" (in which case the seventies would keep Iaou form instead of Ieou).
In addition to the initial part Yehô- which was shortened to yo-, the final part -yah had also a diminutive -yahu , and the latter term means "Yah same." This entry appeared for two reasons. First, the Hebrew word hu ' , meaning "self" (implying God) begin' to acquire great importance in worship. For example, to distinguish themselves from the others and to mark their lives, God is often expressed using the Hebrew expression 'ani hu' , meaning "myself" or more 'exactly, "I, himself" or "It' myself." (Dt 32:39; Is 52: 6; etc.) Although humans also can use the same expression talking about themselves (1Ch 21:17), usually when someone was using "he" or "He himself" was to indicate God. (2 Kings 2:14)
The Jews have not been slow to integrate this divine name in their names, as in the case of the following Abihu '(my father's name [is] He), Elihu' (my God [is] He), or Yehu '(Ye [Huah is ] He). Piu 'Later, being silent the final letter of these names, this was no more' written. For example, the name Elihu 'is very often written Elihu. The Abiyah names (my father [is] Yah), and Eliyah (my God [is] Yah) were also used, and there was a mixture of Yah and Hu 'to get names like Abiyahu' (my father [is ] Yah himself), or Eliyahu '(my God [is] the same Yah).
This association provoked 'the use of a new divine name, which is not found in the Bible, except that the term of some teoforici names: the name Yah hu', abbreviated to Yahu. The similarity of this expression with the Tetragrammaton undoubtedly favors' the emergence of this expression. For more 'you can' find this name alone (YHW), written by the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), in the writings of Kuntillet Ajrud, dated 9 sec. B.C. Some specialists argue that the final U might be a remnant of an archaic name. However, this would be a single occasion. Moreover, this explanation is really unconvincing since it does not apply to Elihu name.
- The full name YHWH is vocalized YeHoWaH in Hebrew and IOA beginning of many Greek names. Similarly, as there were many names teoforici processed by the full name, ie names that begin in Yehô- and in its abbreviated form Y (eh) o-, there were also teoforici names processed by Yah. However we need a big precision in the Bible, Greek or Hebrew. The Jews were concerned to start at their names in Yehô- or yo-, or finish their names in -yah, but never the other way, without exception . Cosi 'is not found in the Bible, from the hundreds of existing teoforici names, one name that begins with Yah-. Thus' those who vocalize YHWH in Yahweh are obliged to admit that the Tetragrammaton, theophoric name par excellence, does not belong to the class of teoforici names, that would really be the ultimate ridiculous. This lack of reasonableness is clear when you open a dictionary, and the name Yahweh is isolated from all other teoforici names: Joshua (Joshua), Jonathan (Jonathan), Jesus (Jesus'), John (Giovanni), etc. For example, the name YHW H NN (John John) is vocalized Yeho h a-nan-nan in Hebrew and IOA in greek. For example Severus of Antioch (465-538) wrote in his comments to John chapter 8 that the Hebrew name of God is IOA ( IWA ). Also this name IOA ( IWA ) is located in the sixth century in Coilinianus Codex.
E 'can also verify that, without exception , the teoforici names begin in YHW- and are vocalized YeHÔ- (IO- in the seventies), and those ending in -YHW are vocalized -YaHÛ (IA or IOU in the seventies). In addition, voice to often follows the YeHÔ- sequence, ie the "normal" sequence is Yeho - () a. This sequence is so 'universal in teoforici names that some names have been "teoforicizzati" for similarity in the following cases of the Seventy: IOA-tam (Jg 9: 7, 57; 2Ki 15: 5, 32), IOA-Keim (1Ch 4 : 22), IOA-s (1Ch 23: 10,11), IOA-sar (1Ch 2:18), Iôa- k to (Jer 37: 3), etc. To summarize, the name Yehu 'comes from a contraction of YeHoWaH Hu' to YeHoW- [aH] -u '. On the other hand yahu resulting from the contraction of the two YaH-Hu 'names.

2) No link "obvious" in the name YH abbreviated and full name YHWH.
The vocalization of the abbreviated name Yah YH proves nothing about the vocalization of the full name. For example, Betty and Liz are abbreviated versions of Elisabeth, but the link between the abridged versions and the full name is not at all obvious. In any case, there are only four combinations for all teoforici names.
Natan
He gave
2Sa 7: 2
Yah Natan-
He gave - Yah
1Ch 25: 2
Natan- Yahu
He gave - Yah same
Jer 36:14
Natan Yehô-
Yeho [wah] - he gave
1Sa 14: 6
Nathan yo-
Y (yes) ô [wah] - gave
1Sa 14: 1

3) The loss of the first vowel does not apply to the full name YHWH.
If teoforici names were still pronounced Yaho- (in Hebrew) at the beginning of the 3 ° century before our era, the translators of the Septuagint would have to preserve these names, as Iaô- because generally retained the first vowel of proper names ( Zacharias, Natania, Cahath, instead of Zeccaria, Netania, Cehath, etc.). Now among the thousands of teoforici Greek names in the Bible, he did not find even one that stays with Iaô- (or even with Ia-). This should have succere frequently if these names were started with Yahow- (or Yaw-). For example, all "teoforici" names of the god Nabu (beginning in Nebu- in Hebrew) are written in the seventies Nabou-. Cosi 'initials IO of teoforici names provide evidence of vocalization Y (eh) o- and not of Y (h) o-.
In this way, assume that all teoforici names in Hebrew vocalized today Yehô- were derived from an "archaic" form of Yahû- is unsustainable from the point of view of the language laws. On the other hand, the fusion of the group ua in a simple u is often observed especially in the middle of a word.
Name
Meaning
Jewish Form
Quote
Ge'û'el
Majesty of God
Ga '(a) w (h) -' el
Nb 13:15
Mitswot
Commandments
Mitsw (ah) -OT
Nb 15:22
Yisra'el
Contend, God
Yisra (h) 'and
Gen 32:28
'Elohim
Gods / God
'Elo (a) h-im
2K 1:12

So 'the name Ga'aw (ah)' and became Ga'ow'el ie Ga'û'el then Ge'û'el. Piu 'in general occurred contractions teoforici names. For example YeHoWaH-nathan became Yehow (ah) nathan ie Yehônathan, and in some cases there was a double contraction as in YeHoWaH-'el which became Y (h) w (h) 'and that Yô'el, and similarly Ga' (a) w (ah) 'el became Ga'û'el (then Ge'û'el), or Mitsw (ah) ot became Mitswot. Even the name Zeru ( 'a) babel meaning "Babel seed' step 'in Hebrew in Zerubabel.
Today the name theophoric possibly more 'ancient and Yo h anan (yw h nn), written in paleoebraico and dated 11 ° century BC. In any case, the influence of the name Yahu 's so powerful that the name Yo h anan is spent bed Yaw h anan. There is also a habit to vocalize Ya all previous names, because of the belief that all Semitic names seguissere a general evolution in Ya> Yi> Ye, according to a language law occurred relatively well (the law of Barth- Ginsberg). It should be noted, however, that this law is often applied recto-verso, namely Ye For example, the name should be hyphenated Yisra'el Ia-a -ra-yl today; but at Ebla, in documents dating from the third millennium BC, it was found the name I -ra-on, that is the exact equivalent of Yisrael. In fact, some studies showed that some verbal forms and names could be vocalized Yi Ya rather than in Ebla. In addition to the texts of Mari, dating to the same period, the experts came to the same conclusions about the vocalization Yi Ya rather than, in many cases. For example the name I-krub (He Benedi ') is very often written Ia-krub. Cosi 'observing the texts of the most' ancient known to us, this law (Ya> Yi> Ye) has many exceptions.
Many linguists have postulated that although this name was pronounced YeHoWaH in the first century, would have been the result of an "archaic" or Yahowah Yahwoh with classic fall of the initial vowel (because of accent), that became the first syllable Ya- Ye-. Now if this change is well demonstrated in the case of many names (although the influence of the Aramaic language of the Jewish one can 'explain this change as well), there is no trace of this phenomenon in the case of the divine name. For example, the modern names Zekaryah, Nethanyah, Sedom, etc., had to be pronounced Zakaryah, Nathanyah, Saduma, etc.in "ancient times", because the Septuagint retained earlier forms with the initial vowel (Zakaria, Nathania, Sodom, etc .). Cherish 'in this way numerous traces of this process that occurred in the 3 ° century BC. If according to the hypothesis of the previously mentioned linguists, the teoforici names were still pronounced Yaho- (in Hebrew) at the beginning of the 3 ° century BC, The translators of LXX would have to keep these names in Iaô-. Now from thousands of teoforici names in the Greek Bible (or Jewish), he does not find a single one left Iaô- or even in Ia-. The language laws do not explain why the Septuagint did not keep track of this term Iaô-, that he should certainly be very popular if the name had been Yahwoh.
Also it offered a second explanation: there was a transformation of Iaô name for theological reasons (ie the protection of God's Name). This second statement, which is based on a fact finding, is also refuted. If in fact the Tetragrammaton was pronounced Yahwoh (the Yahowah èassurda form, because it means in Hebrew "Yah [is] Howah", meaning 'disaster'), the full name (which is in itself surprising) would be integrated at the beginning of teoforici names, and all these names in Yaho- would become I- (known forms in the LXX except rare exceptions as Ié-zikar, Ié-zébouth [2 K 12:21]; IE-soué [1Ch 7:27]; -iarib [1Ch 24: 7]). This transformation is illogical, because when the final in -yahû, we note that the final choice were modified was divided between -ia and -iou; now Iaô- transformation I- would be unanimous (thing in itself hard to believe, because even when the Christian copyists changed the divine name by the title "Lord" Some preferred the title "God") and disagree with the previous choice -ia as the end of teoforici names (this theological choice of Ia- was the most 'logical because it kept the abbreviated form (Yah) of the divine name). Not only the vocalization of these names is very hypothetical, but also their meaning, that of their etymologies, reflects more 'closely the convictions of modern experts, more' tangible evidence. This is certainly true, in spite of the advanced philosophical justifications in some cases.
The most 'reasonable explanation is so' consider that the greek term IO- result simply from a Hebrew form Y (eh) o-.

4) What exactly does "read the Name according to its letters"?
To combat cabalistic influences Maimonides, jew Talmudic scholar and famous, I work 'a complete redefinition of Judaism. The pivot of his argument was the name of God, the Tetragrammaton, which was explained in his book Guide to the Perplexed , written in 1190, when he exhibited the following powerful argument; Maimonides known 'that the God of BDo philosophers require any worship because it is impossible to establish a relationship with a God without a name (Elohim), then argue' that the Tetragrammaton YHWH is the personal name of God, ie the name read distinctly (Shem hamephorash), which is different from all other names as: Adonay, Shadday, Elohim (these are simply divine titles with an etymology) and others, because Tetragrammaton has no etymology. Tuttaiva Maimonides knew the problem of pronunciation, because the Jewish tradition stated that it had been lost. On the other hand, he also knew that some Jews believed in the magical influence of the letters or a precise pronunciation of the divine names, but I inform 'the reader about these practices defining inventions and crazy things. The most 'remarkable aspect of this statement lies in how I reason' to avoid controversies about a topic so 'delicate. He stated 'In fact it was only true worship that had been lost, and not the authentic pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, because it was always possible according to his letters . In support of this basic idea (which is true worship is more 'important than pronunciation), he and I quote' Sota 38a to prove that this name is the essence of God, and that is the reason not to abuse it, then I quote ' Zechariah 14: 9 to show the uniqueness of this name, and also numbers 6: 23-27 shows that the priests were obliged to bless through this unique name.
Then, to show that the pronunciation of the name is not created problems in the past, and that it contained no magic aspect, I quote 'in principle Kiddouchin 71a, to say that this name was transmitted by the rabbis to their children. Also according Yoma 39b this ruling was widely used before the priest Simon the Just, which shows the inconsistency of magical concepts, because in those days when the name was used had no supernatural aspect, apart from the spiritual. Maimonides insisted that what 'was necessary to rediscover the spirituality was connected to this name, and not the exact pronunciation. To demonstrate this very important concept to understand the meaning and not the sound transmitted with this name, I quote 'a relevant example. Certainly in Exodus 6: 3 the text indicates that before Moses, the name was not known; that is, the exact meaning of the name, and not the pronunciation, because who could reasonably believe that a good ruling is suddenly was capable of inciting Israel to action, unless you suppose magic action of this name, which is inconsistent with the continuation of the events? To conclude this demonstration I quote Maimonides' Exodus 3:14 to show that the expression èhyèh ashèr èhyèh that can 'be well translated as "I will be' what 'I will'", is primarily a spiritual teaching. Since the Tetragrammaton had no etymology (language), this connection with the verb "to be (haya)" expressed primarily reasoning "etymological", meaning a teaching about God, which can 'be defined as "the Being which stands happening "or" the necessary being. "
It 's interesting to note that Judah Hallevi, another Jewish scholar, present' virtually the same arguments in his book The Kuzari published a few years earlier, in 1140. He wrote that the main difference between the God of Abraham and the God of Aristoteke was Tetragrammaton (Kuzari IV: 16). He proved 'too that this name was the personal God (ibid IV: 1) and that meant "he will be with you." To further prove that was the meaning of this name that was important and not his pronunciation, he quote 'Exodus 5: 2, where Pharaoh demanded to know his name: not his decision, that he used, but rather' the authorities of this name (ibid IV: 15). He proved 'Finally the letters of the Tetragrammaton have the remarkable property of being matres lectionis , ie the vowels are associated with other consonants, as the spirit is associated with the body and makes him live (ibid IV: 3).
These two versions so they provided scholars' convergent which represented a turning point in the history of the name. However, the expression "pronounced according to his letters" as a reminder 'Maimonides (vowel letters as Judah explains Hallevi) is strictly accurate only in the Hebrew language. Joachim of Fiore made a Greek transliteration of the Tetragrammaton (IEUE) in his work entitled Expositio in Apocalypsim that complete 'in the year 1195. He also used' the 'Adonay IEUE Tetragrammatonaton nomen "expression in his other book entitled Liber Figurarum . Joachim of Fiore ovens 'three other names: IE, IV, V, that I associate' to the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit!
The vocalization of the 'Tetragrammaton (IEUE) connected to the name of Jesus' (EU) was going to be improved by Pope Innocent III wrote in one of his sermons around 1200. He noted' that the Hebrew letters of the Tetragrammaton Ioth, Eth, Vau ( namely Y, H, W) were used as vowels, and then the name IESUS had exactly the same vowels I, E and U of the divine name. As Joachim of Fiore, he decomposed the divine name IEUE in IE-EU-EU, which allowed him 'to suppose that the IE-SUS name contains the name of God IE. I present 'also a parallel between the name written IEVE but pronounced Adonai and the name IHS written but pronounced IESUS. The linking of these two words play a crucial role in the vocalization of the Tetragrammaton process.
In the following years the knowledge of Hebrew progredi 'strongly, including in particular the role of matres lectionis . For example, the famous scholar Roger Bacon (1220-1292) wrote in his grammar of Hebrew and Hebrew there are six vowels (aleph, he, vav, heth, iod, ain) that approach the use of dotted Masoretic vowels. The French scholar Fabre d'Olivet explain 'who was also in his Hebrew grammar the following equivalence: aleph = â, he = is, heth = é, ô waw = / u, yod = î, aïn = wo. He stated ', in his work La Langue hébraïque restituée (The language ebraice returned) published in 1823, that the best pronunciation of the name divinosecondo his letters was Ihôah / Iôhah / Jhôah. For more 'when I start' to translate the Bible (Genesis, chapters I to X), he used 'systematically IHÔAH the name in his translation. Antoine Fabre d'Olivet, famous polyglot, knew many Eastern languages, something that 'to lean port for philological choice (rather than theological) meaning he refused' to mix the sound with the Sendo of the word. In addition Judah Hallevi had already clarified in his work that the yod (Y) served as a vowel I, the waw (W) by O, and that h (H) and aleph ( ') served as A. According to these rudimentary directions, you could read approximately the name YHWH "according to his letters," as IHOA (because the letter H is never used as a voice in the middle of words; the exceptional case that you prefer to use the letter Aleph.) For example, the name YH is pronounced according to its IA letters in Hebrew, in Latin IH and IE in greek.
Giuseppe Flavio (37-100), who knew very well the priesthood of this time, clear 'that when the Romans attacked the temple the Jews invoked the ominous name of God, but wrote down his refusal to transmit it to the reader. However gave the paramount information to rediscover the ruling that he wanted to keep hidden. You can 'read fact in the work The Jewish War the following statement: "The high priest had his head decorated with a tiara of fine linen embroidered with a purple edge, and surrounded by another crown in gold that brought the holy letters in relief ; these are four voice. " This is an excellent description; for more 'complete one made in Exodus 28: 36-39. However as we know there are no vowels in Hebrew, only the consonants. Unfortunately, instead of explaining this apparent strangeness, some commentators (affected by Yahweh shape) mislead the readers of Giuseppe Flavio stating in a footnote that this reading was IAUE. Now it is evident that the "sacred letters" referred to the Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew language, and not in greek. For more 'in Hebrew these consonants Y, W, H, are precisely used as vowels; are more 'calls matres lectionis "mothers of reading." The writings of Qumrân have shown that the Y vowel in the first century served only to indicate the sounds I and E, W needed only for Ô U and sounds, while an H word needed in order for the sound A. These equivalences can be If you check on thousands of words. For more 'H was used as a voice only in word word, and never inside (but between vowels the' H is pronounced like a light E). Cosi 'to read the name YHWH as four vocal force you to read IHÔA ie IEÔA.
A second witness in respect of this period on the pronunciation is the Talmud itself, because the Tetragrammaton is called "Shem Hamephorash" which means "the name read distinctly" or "read the name according to his letters." Despite the fact that some Kabbalists claimed that the word "mephorash" means "hidden" is easy to check the correct meaning of this word in the Bible itself (Neh 8: 8; Ezra 4:18). In addition to the Talmud (Sanhedrin 101a 10: 1) prohibits the use of the divine name for magical purposes, and Rabbi Abba Shaul (130-160?) Adds not to use biblical quotations containing the Tetragrammaton for exorcism purposes, and pronunciation the Tetragrammaton according to his letters, as anticipated warning that those who transgress this command would compromise their participation in the new world. The phrase "pronounce the Name according to its letters" means pronouncing the name as it is written, or according to the sound of his letters, other than the spell a name according to his letters. Nevertheless, there was authorization to pronounce the name YHWH according to his letters (because the Talmud itself he did), namely in Hebrew Yod, He, Waw, He (or Y, H, W, H in Italian); on the other hand, it was forbidden to pronounce it according to these same letters.
In Hebrew, the majority of their names spelled out in full, can 'be read according to his letters. In the first century, people used the equivalence Y = I, W = U, and H = A in the end of a word. Also there was alternating consonant-vowel when reading these names, except in cases of guttural sounds or the H in the final, it was vocalized to . When a name in the vowels, consonants are vocalized is not indicated with a . This style of reading is usual in Hebrew, for example in the case of some famous name or in the case of some names with spelling similar to that of the Tetragrammaton.
read Name
second
her
consonants
her
letters
there
Seventy
the
Masoretes
1Ch 3: 5
Yrw lym
Iru alim
Ierousalem
Yeru alayim
Gen 29:35
Yhwdh
Ihuda
Iouda
Yehudah
Gen 25:19
'brhm
'Abaraham
Abraham
'Abraham
Gen 25:19
Y s q
The s in aq
Isaak
Yi s aq
Leviticus 26:42
Y'qwb
I'aqub
Iakob
Ya'aqôb
2 Ch 27: 1
Yrw h
Iru in
Iérousa
Yeru ah
Gen 46:17
wh
ua
Iésoua
Yi wah
1Ch 2:38
Yhw '
Ihu '
Ièou
Yehu '
Genesis 3:14
Yhwh
Ihua
(Kurios)
(Adonay)
It 'easy to see in the table above the excellent agreement between the reading of these names according to the Septuagint and reading them by their letters (in Hebrew). The reading process according to their letters is, in principle, very rudimentary, because it contains only three sounds I (Y), U (W) and A, while the Hebrew owns seven (i, is, [and] , is, a, o, u). Neglecting this intrinsic defect, this reading method provides good overall results.
A third witness, always relative to this period, comes from people who had access to the priesthood, that the translators of the Septuagint. This version had already fixed the vocalization of their names shortly before it came into use in the habit of not utter more 'name outside the Temple. Now you may notice that all teoforici names beginning in YHW- () in the Hebrew Bible were vocalized I- (a) in the seventies and always Ia-. Therefore the divine name, which is the name theophoric par excellence (ie YHW-H), to agree with everyone else teoforici names should be vocalized, I-in Greek or, if you want to retrieve the H silent (not It exists in greek): IHÔA. Some authors like Severino of Antioch (465-538), used the form IOA ( Iwa ) in a series of commentaries on the eighth chapter of John's Gospel, making it clear that it was the divine name in Hebrew. Another book (In Praise of John the Baptizer 129: 30) also made allusion to the IOA name written in Greek iota, omega, alpha . In codex Coilinianus dated 6 ° century, will explain many teoforici names with the Greek word aoratos which means "invisible" ( aoraotoV is located in the LXX in Genesis 1: 2) and is accessed IOA. The words aoratos or arretos ( arrhtoV meaning "unspeakable") are equivalent to the Latin word "ineffable".
Paul Drach, a rabbi who converted to Catholicism, I explain 'in his book De l'harmonie entre l'église et la synagogue (Harmony between church and synagogue) published in 1842, it was logical that the ruling Yehova, which was in accordance with the initial of all teoforici names, it was the authentic pronunciation, contrary to the form of Yahweh Samaritan origin. He monster 'lightness of criticism against Yehova form as charges of being a read error attributed to Galatino. I quote 'Raymond Martin and Porchettus de Salvaticis to contest the charge. Then monster 'delusional transformation technique of vowels a, o, to the word Adonay into e, o, a , because this hypothetical grammar rule (against the nature of qere / ketib) already was no longer' valid in the fall of the word Elohim which keeps its three vowels is, or, i no need to change them and, or, i . Despite the support it had in the Vatican at the time, these explanations did not have a great effect.
In addition, this vocalization has always been regarded as the most 'correct by the Jews themselves. For example in the first Hebrew translation in French (duration 1836-1852) the jew translator Samuel Cahen use 'the name Iehovah systematically. He defended his selection by reference to the ideas of the famous grammarian German W. Gesenius. The jew Professor JH Levy explain 'why he preferred the Y'howah shape, instead of Yahweh, in his ariticolo published in 1903 in The Jewish Quarterly Review . Today you can read the book for the Jews, the preface to the French Chief Rabbi Joseph Sitruk, that the name Ye.ho.va (Jéhovah), written with Hebrew letters Yod, Vav He, He, is considered to be the name true God.
The problem of knowing which vowels were present with the four consonants of the divine name is absurd because the Masoretic vowels, which are the vowel points, appeared after the year 500 of our era. Before that time were the only voice matres lectionis . Also vowels and, or, not played any role in the discovery of the true pronunciation between Christians Jewish professors. On the other hand in order to justify their pronunciation of the name "according to his letters", he quoted the book of Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed very often. In addition, before 1100, the vowel points used with the Tetragrammaton had not, either, but in and, to that is the voice of the Aramaic word Shema 'which means "The Name."

5) The most 'oldest archaeological evidence is in favor of Jehovah's ruling
A brief transcript dating from the time of Amenophis III (-1391 -1353) was found at Soleb.
This script is easy to decipher. But you can 'write down this sentence written in hieroglyphics with: "t3 3-sw-w yh-w3-w". This expression is vocalized in a conventional manner with "ta 'sha'suw yehua'w", which can' be translated as: "land of Bedouins those of Yehua '".

These entries contain a number of words to allow for a comparison. In addition, these Bedouin Shasu usually mean for Egyptians a type of Bedouin who live with their wealth (bundles), in the northern Sinai region. Some specialists prefer to identify Yehua with a stranger place name. However, this distinction is impossible to prove, as in the case of biblical place names such as: "land of Judah" (Dt 34: 2); "the land of Rameses" (Gen. 47:11); or with the list of names of Egyptian places of Thutmose III "[the land of] Jacob-El"; "[land] Josep-El".
However there is a very bad habit in the vocalization of the name Yhw3 because the totality of dictionaries indicates yhw ', illegible, or Yahweh, which is not in accordance with the conventional vocalization, but never Yehua'. Some specialists argue rigardo to poor knowledge of the voice of the Egyptian words, the real thing. However, for foreign words, as in this case, the Egyptians used a sort of standard alphabet with matres lectionis, ie using semi-consonants as they were spoken. In this way we obtain the equivalences: 3 = a, w = u, ÿ = i, and this is the precise reason why the reading with the conventional method provides acceptable results. For example, in the Merneptah stele dated 13 ° century before our era, the name Israel is transcribed into hieroglyphs as Yÿsri3l, you can read: Yisrial (with conventional systems), results not to be despised. Nevertheless, some specialists who reject the classic system, read this name Yasarial because of its antiquity. However about a millennium before, at Ebla, you can 'read the name The rail, which condraddice the Yasarial version. Cosi 'with the current knowledge, the conventional system of hieroglyphs reading constitutes the best alternative, and with this method the name (or name of a place) Yhw3 is "technically bed" Yehua'.
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